The precursor of the upcoming Global Climate Agreement that world leaders are hoping to broker and sign in Paris this November and December is the Kyoto Protocol, which was ratified by 192 countries. The Kyoto signatories pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by curbing deforestation and capping carbon emissions. These negative anthropogenic, or man-made, activities will continue to cause the speeding up the perilous warming of global temperatures.

In order to prepare for this Climate Agreement in Paris, preparatory negotiations were held in Bonn last week. However, this early round of negotiations has been lambasted for their slow speed and lack of any real positive ecological change.

At Bonn, progress was painstakingly slow in drawing up new emissions targets. Towards the end of the preparatory negotiations some countries, both economically developed and developing, countries, eventually set out goals on reductions or curbs on emissions. But their reductions are for the decade following 2020. Additionally, and crucially these targets are still regarded as falling short of scientific advice espoused by the credible IPCC and other leading researchers.

Former Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan and the first female President of Ireland, Mary Robinson have urged today’s current Prime Ministers and Presidents to act quickly and act responsibly for the survival of the planet. Governments and leading businesses need to cooperate in these next weeks to push through a shared agenda in time for this year’s all-decisive COP.

Above all, it must be remembered that some societies are already feeling the impacts of climate change. These climate-affected and climate-vulnerable societies are dependent on a global agreement being successfully brokered. The future of all societies, however, are dependent on a solid, climate-smart, low emissions, defossiled future. The Paris COP is our hope to engender that.